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虚拟语气中的含蓄条件句常见用法总结.docx

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虚拟语气中的含蓄条件句常见用法总结.docx

。 。 PAGE # 虚拟语气中的含蓄条件句常见用法 先看一道高考题:more attention , the trees could have grown better . A. Given B .To give C . Giving D . Having given (答案是 A) 句中 " ...the trees could have grown better" 是一个表达虚拟语气的句子。题中要求选择的是如何表 达假设条件的形式。 如果我们把这个句子用另一种形式 "If they had been given more attention ,the trees could have grown better . "来表示,就不难理解了。很多情况下,在表示假设的虚拟语气中,有 时假设的条件并不以条件从句的形式表达,而是通过上下文或句中内在的逻辑关系,或用其它形式表达出 来,我们称之为 " 含蓄条件句 "。 含蓄条件句主要通过名词、连接词、不定式、分词、动名词短语、介词短语及分句来暗示。这些表达形式 在句中实际起着虚拟条件从句的作用。现分述如下: 一、介词短语 常用来表示虚拟条件的介词有 with , without ,in , under , but for 等等,它们表示的虚拟条件都可以被 if 从句替换。 ( 1 ) without , with without 表示否定的条件,意为 if ... not ; with 与 without 意义相反,表示肯定的条件。如: Without air , there would be no living things . (without air = if there were no air ) 没有空气, .假如有她帮助,我就可以便没有生物。 .假如有她帮助,我就可以 With her help (=If I had her help ), I would do the experiment well 把这个实验做好 under Under the leadership of a less experienced person, the experiment would have failedunder. Under the leadership of a less experienced person , the experiment would have failed unde r. If there had been the leadership of a less experienced person )假设在一个缺少经验的 人领导下进行实验,实验准会失败 in ion )我处在那种情况下,是会丧失理智的。 I would have lost my head in that positionin that positionif I had been in that posit I would have lost my head in that position in that position if I had been in that posit but for But for their help(=If it were not for their help But for their help (=If it were not for their help ), we could not get over the difficultie s.要不是他们的帮助,我们是克服不了这些困难的。 二、 连接词 or ,otherwise ,but ,but that 等等 Im really busy , otherwise (= if I werent so busy ), I would certainly go with you .我确实太 忙了。不然的话,我一定和你一块去。 But that I saw it (=If I had not seen it ), I could not have believed it .要不是亲眼看见的话, 我是不会相信的。 三、 分词短语 United(=If they had been united ), they wouldnt have been defeated .他们要是团结起来,就不 会被打败。 Seen from a high mountain (=If it were seen from a high mountain ), the field in which whea t is growing would look like a great green sea .倘若从高山上看,麦田就像一片碧绿的大海。 四、 动词不定式短语 It would be only partly right to answer in this way .(=if we answered in this way )如果这样 回答,只对一部分。 To hear him speak English (= If one were to hear him speak English ), one would think him an Englishman .要是听他讲起英语来,人们会认为他是一个英国人。 五、 形容词或其比较级的形式 A less difficult problem would have already been solved .(= If the problem had been less di fficult , it would have already been solved .)要是问题不那么难的话,它早就被解决了。 An honest man would not do such a thing .(=If he were an honest man , he would not do such a thing .)诚实的人是不会做这种事的。 六、 名词 An honest man would not say this .(= If the man were honest , he wouldnt say this .)一个诚 实的人,就不会说这种话。 Who but a fool (= If one were a fool , one)would believe his words .除了傻瓜,谁会相信他的话! 七、"名词+ and"的结构 One step further and you would be dead .(=If you took one step further , you would be dead .) 再往前走一步,你就会死 八、独立主格结构或由 with 引导的复合结构 All things considered (= If all things were considered ) , the price would be reasonable .如果 全面考虑起来,价格可能是合理的。 九、定语从句 A nation which stoppe

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