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翻译导论英文简介.ppt

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翻译导论英文简介.ppt


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Introduction: What is Translation? In their elegant but often overlooked preface to the King James Bible, the translators asserted: “Translation it is that openeth the window, to let in the light; that breaketh the shell, that we may eat the kernel; that putteth aside the curtain, that we may look into the most holy place; that removeth the cover of the well, that we may come by the water.” 1. Definition of Translation Translation is the replacement of an original text with another text. 翻译是运用一种语言把另一种语言所表达 的思维内容准确完整地重新表达出来的语 言活动。(张培基 1983 ) Nida points out: translation consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (1984: 83) (所谓翻译,是指从语义到语体在译语中 用最切近而又最自然的对等语再现原语的 信息。) Between different signs Red traffic light = STOP “=” means “equal” Body Language → verbal language Sign language → verbal language Within the same language 子曰:“学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来, 不亦乐乎?人不知,而不愠,不亦君子乎?” 孔子说:“学了又时常温习和练习,不是很愉快 吗?有志同道合的人从远方来,不是很令人高兴 的吗?人家不了解我,我也不怨恨、恼怒,不也 是一个有德的君子吗?” 方言 → 标准语 Between different languages Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament , is in discourse; and for ability , is in the judgment and disposition of business 读书足以怡情,足以博采,足以长才。其 怡情也 , 最见于独处幽居之时;其博采也, 最见于高谈阔论之中;其才干也,最见于 处世判事之际。 2. Types of Translation Roman Jakobson s Classification 1) Intralingual translation —— rewording 2) Interlingual translation —— translation proper 3) Intersemiotic translation —— transmutation 从原语和目的语的角度来看,翻译可分为 本族语译为外语,外语译为本族语两大类, 即 译入 或 译出 ( translation into or out of ones mother tongue ) 从翻译的手段来看,可分为 口译 、 笔译 和 机器翻译 。 从翻译的内容来看,可分为 文学翻译、政 治翻译、科技翻译和应用文翻译 等。 按其处理方式来分,又有 全译、摘译和编 译 等。 3. Basic concepts in translation studies Original Text (OT) — Translated Text [ 原文 — 译文 / 原作 — 译作 ] Source Text (ST) — Target Text (TT) [ 源文本 — 目标文本 ] Source Language (SL) — Target Language (TL) [ 源语言 — 目标语言 ] Source Culture — Target culture Translation strategies ( 翻译策略 ) Literal translation vs. Free translation [ 直译 — 意译 ] Domestication vs. Foreignization / Naturalization vs. alienization [ 归化与异化 ] Translation techniques/skills Principles of translation Translation criteria Loyalty ( 忠实 ) Faithfulness ( 忠实 ) Equivalence ( 对等 ) Readership Readers expectation

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