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考点08-被动语态-2018年中考英语语法考点纵览 (1).doc

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地址:西湖区文二路307号 电话:400-8122616 第 PAGE 1页您身边最专业的测评中心 中考英语语法考点纵览 ——被动语态 一、语态概述 1、语态的定义: 英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的,用来说明主语和谓语之间的主动或者被动关系。 2、语态的种类: 英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。 二、被动语态考点纵览 考点一: 主动语态和被动语态的比较 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。如: Many people speak English. 很多人说英语。 (主语many people是动词speak的执行者) English is spoken by many people. 英语被很多人说。 (主语English是动词speak的承受者) He opened the door. 他开了门。 (主语he是动词open的执行者) The door was opened. 门被开了。 (主语the door是动词open的承受者) 考点二: 被动语态的构成 被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。 主动句: 执行者(主语)+ 谓语动词 + 承受者(宾语) 被动句: 承受者(主语)+ be + 过去分词 + by + 执行者 注意: (1)有时by+执行者可以省略。(2)主动句的时态是由谓语动词来体现的,而被动句的 时态是由be动词来体现的。 被动语态的否定式: 在第一个助动词后加not构成。 被动语态的疑问式:把第一个助动词提到主语之前,句尾加问号构成。 典型例句: 主动句: The workers built the bridge. 被动句: The bridge was built by the workers. 考点三: 被动语态的使用场合 1. 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。 Some computers were stolen last night. 昨天晚上几台电脑被偷了。 This book was published in 1981. 这本书出版于1981年。 强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。 The window was broken by Mike. 窗户是迈克打破的。 This book was written by him. 这本书是他写的。 考点四: 被动语态的各种形式 ① 一般现在时的被动语态 一般现在时的被动语态:am/ is/ are + done 典型例题 1 People grow rice in the south of the country. Rice is grown in the south of the country. 典型例题 2 The school doesnt allow us to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher. We are not allowed to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher. ② 一般过去时的被动语态 一般过去时的被动语态:was / were + done 典型例题 1 They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month. The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month. 典型例题 2 The students didnt forget his lessons easily. His lessons were not easily forgotten. ③ 现在进行时的被动语态 典型例题 1 The radio is broadcasting English lessons. English lessons are being broadcasted on the radio. 典型例题 2 We are painting the rooms. The rooms are being painted. ④ 过去进行时的被动语态 典型例题 1 The workers were mending the road. The road was being mended. 典型例题 2 This time last year we were planting trees here. Trees were being planted here this time last year. ⑤ 现在完成时的被动语态 典型例题 1 Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off. I have been told the sports meeting might be put off. 典型例题 2 He has brought his book here. His book has been brought here. ⑥ 过去完成时的被动语态 典型例题 1 When I got to the theatre, I found they had already sold out the tickets. When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets had already been sold out. 典型例题 2 People had considered him to be a great leader. He had been considered to be a great leader ⑦ 一般将来时的被动语态 典型例题 1 They will send cars abroad by sea. Cars will be sent abroad by sea. 典型例题 2 They will give plenty of jobs to school-leavers. Plenty of jobs will be given to school-leavers. ⑧ 过去将来时的被动语态 典型例题 1 The manager said they would complete the project by the end of the year. The manager said the project would be completed by the end of the year. 典型例题 2 The workers told me they would mend the car as soon as possible. The workers told me that the c

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