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药学英语第五版原文翻译..doc

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药学英语第五版原文翻译..doc


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Introduction 生理学简介 Physiology is the study of the functions of living matter. 介绍 It is concerned with how an organism performs its varied 生理学是研究生物体功能的科学。 它研 activities: how it feeds, how it moves, how it adapts to changing circumstances, how it spawns new generations. The subject is 究生物体如何进行各种活动,如何饮食,如 vast and embraces the whole of life. The success of physiology 何运动,如何适应不断改变的环境,如何繁 殖后代。这门学科包罗万象,涵盖了生物体 in explaining how organisms perform their daily tasks is based on the notion that they are intricate and exquisite machines 整个生命过程。 生理学成功地解释了生物体 如何进行日常活动, 基于的观点是生物体好 whose operation is governed by the laws of physics and chemistry. 比是结构复杂而灵巧的机器, 其操作受物理 和化学规律控制。 Although some processes are similar across the whole spectrum of biology — the replication of the genetic code for 尽管从生物学整个范畴看, 生物体某些 活动过程是相似的——如基因编码的复制 or example — many are specific to particular groups of ——但许多过程还是某些生物体群组特有 organisms. For this reason it is necessary to divide the subject 的。鉴于此有必要将这门学科分成不同部分 into various parts such as bacterial physiology, plant physiology, and animal physiology. 研究,如细菌生理学、植物生理学和动物生 To study how an animal works it is first necessary to know 理学。 how it is built. A full appreciation of the physiology of an 要研究一种动物如何活动, 首先需要了 organism must therefore be based on a sound knowledge of its 解它的构成。 要充分了解一个生物体的生理 anatomy. Experiments can then be carried out to establish how 学活动就必须掌握全面的解剖学知识。 一个 particular parts perform their functions. Although there have 生物体的各部分起着什么作用可通过实验 观察得知。 尽管我们对志愿者进行了许多重 been many important physiological investigations on human 要的生理调查,但是实验条件需要精确控 volunteers, the need for precise control over the experimental conditions has meant that much of our present physiological 制,所以我们当前大多生理知识还是源于对 knowledge has been derived from studies on other animals such 其它动物如青蛙,兔子,猫和狗等的研究。 as frogs, rabbits, cats, and dogs. When it is clear that a 当我们明确大多数动物物种的特定生理过 specific physiological process has a common basis in a wide 程存在共同之处时, 相同的生理原理适用于 variety of animal species, it is reasonable to assume that the 人类也是合理的。通过这种方法,我们获得 了大量的知识, 从而让我们对人类生理学有 same principles will apply to humans. The knowledge gained from this approach has given us a great insight into human physiology 了更深入的了解, 为我们有效治疗许多疾病 and endowed us with a solid foundation for the effective 提供了一个坚实的基础。 treatment of many diseases. 机体的基本组成物质是细胞, 细胞结合 The building blocks of the body are the cells, which are 在一起形成组织。 组织的基本类型有上皮组 grouped together to form tissues. The principal types of tissue 织,结缔组织,神经组织和肌组织,每类组 are epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular, each with 织都有各自的特征。 许多结缔组织中细胞量 its own characteristics. Many connective tissues have 相对较少,但是有大量的细胞外基质。相比 relatively few cells but have an extensive extracellular 而言,光滑的肌组织由大量密密麻麻的肌细 matrix. In contrast, smooth muscle consists of densely packed 胞通过特定的细胞连接组成。各种器官如 layers of muscle cells linked together via specific cell 脑,心脏,肺,小肠和肝等由不同种类的组 junctions. Organs such as the brain, the heart, the lungs, the 织聚集而成。 这些器官是不同生理系统

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